A gecko’s amazing ability to cling to walls and ceilings is an ability that scientists have studied for decades.  Recent research suggests that the gecko’s abilities owe to 200 nm adhesive hairs on the gecko’s feet.  While the traditional definition of nanotechnology requires that the material be smaller than 100 nm, we are willing to make an exception for the gecko. 

Nanowerk reports that researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Metals Research in Germany have leveraged this research to create new adhesive materials:

Copying the biological adhesive mechanism, the Max-Planck scientists used the insights gained from their years of research to develop a material with a biomimetic structure that exhibits excellent adhesive qualities. The special surface structure of the material allows it to stick to smooth walls without any adhesives. Potential applications range from reusable adhesive tape to shoe soles for climbing robots and are therefore of considerable relevance to technology.

The Nanowerk article is unclear as ot whether the new material actually employs nanoscale fibers.  This actually raises an intriguing question about nanotechnology regulation;  if we accept that 100 nm is the largest "nanomaterial," then presumably gecko feet and other "almost" nanoscale materials are not subject to the regulation.  However, I am not sure whether the alleged human health hazards associated with nanomaterials sharply diminish once the particle exceeds 100 nm in length along any one axis.