Continuing with the recent trend of incorporating the use of nanotechnology into medical devices, Astra Tech (a subsidiary of AstraZeneca) recently issued a press release regarding its OsseoSpeed™ implant material. Astra Tech claims to have created a unique nanostructured implant surface by subjecting titanium to a proprietary chemical fluoride treatment. The scientist who invented the process claims “the fluoride treatment brings about a topographical change at a nanoscale level” on the titanium surface which can only be seen at nano-magnification levels (500nm). The resulting nanostructured surface is claimed to promote stronger and faster bone in-growth and healing. Astra Tech also claims to have experienced successful real world application of OsseoSpeed™ through its FOCUS project which is currently monitoring over 800 patients who have had dental implants incorporating OsseoSpeed™ technology in Germany and the United States. Unlike implants employing nanocoatings, the OsseoSpeed™ process does not appear to use traditional “nanoparticles” or "nanomaterials.” However, the material arguably falls under the “nanostructured” definition provided by ASTM E 2456-06, and also under the ASTM definition of “nanotechnology.”